Very sudden changes in behavior can be a sign that there's a medical problem, no matter how young or old the dog is. For example, she could have impaired vision, making it hard to recognize you and read your body language. She could also be in pain, making her shy away from touch to avoid more pain. Where this pain comes from is another question... There ...
That’s one terrified cat.
Cats are rational, they do know their size compared to yours. They only get nails out (mine can) if they fear for their life.
Have there been loud noises that have scared the cat in the past things flying or something?
Best way to deal with an out of control cat is a towel, calm voice and reassurance.
Maybe a medical issue?
Put up baby gates in doorways, this creates an obstacle so the
chased cat can get away unharmed. Put boxes, storage containers under beds to give them a safe space. My 'murder cat' loves our garage because we have stacked containers with a pillow on top for her.
Give high spaces for them to travel along, book cases, shelves, clear the top of frig, cat trees,...