African wildcats, domestic cats’ nearest relative, have a rather scary meow with a wide spectrum, though they don’t use it much around humans anyway. Ditto for other wild felids.
However, there is always some natural variation due to random mutation. Those cats that sounded less scary were more likely to be tolerated by the humans attracting all those yummy mice, which made those cats more likely to survive and produce offspring with that mutation.
This cycle was repeated for thousands of years, and the result is that domestic cats evolved to meow in the narrow frequency band that triggers the same instinctive human reaction that a crying baby does: feed this cute thing now so the noise stops.
However, cats have a pretty limited vocabulary, so the same meow gets reused for many other things, such as wanting to be petted, wanting to go outside, wanting to play, looking for mates, etc.