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It has been 2 days since my cat started going to the litter box but leaving no waste inside the box. Every time, he sits inside for a long time and acts like he's defecating or peeing, but as I said, nothing is produced. I'm not sure if he having difficulty with peeing or defecating. But I have checked that there are feces and that the shape and color is normal, and he defecates two or 3 times a day as usual. So I'm wondering if he's having trouble peeing.

More frustratingly, he suddenly pees while sitting on my lap. This has happened 2 times. I wonder what happened to him, because this thing never happened before, as he always used the litter box.

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    We can only guess, so if you really worry, talk to your vet. Maybe just phone them for now, that's for free and may help you in many cases already. – Mario Dec 7 '16 at 7:48
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It does indeed sound like he is having trouble peeing, which might indicate an infection, partial blockage, kidney/bladder stones, among other things. I would take the cat to the vet immediately.

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You must take your cat to the vet immediately in a case like this.

Issues with urination aren't trivial, and particularly in (older, neutered) males, can lead to death in a short period of time. If your cat is visiting the litter box but not producing anything, this is a sign of a urinary blockage. Inflammation or struvite crystals have blocked the urethra, preventing elimination. It takes only a couple of days for the toxins from the retained urine to build to a fatal level.

A case like this is critical in all cats; males are at a particular risk due to a longer urethra providing more chances of blockage. If the cat is still urinating in some cases (as mentioned in the question), they are likely not fully blocked yet, but immediate vet attention is still vital.

Your vet can insert a catheter to dislodge the blockage and release the urine; treatment may take longer than a single visit, as a cat who has blocked once can easily block again. After treatment, changes in diet will almost definitely be needed, to help prevent the issue from recurring, including a switch to (likely prescription) canned food, to encourage hydration to flush out future crystals before they reach a size that can cause a blockage.

The good news is that, with immediate vet attention, a cat can survive a blockage and lead a perfectly normal life afterward. My own cat lived another five years with no further blockages, and was quite happy to switch to a full wet diet.

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Sounds like constipation and some other related uncontrollable bladder issue which could be signs of something serious. Take him to a vet immediately.

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