The short answer is yes.
The longer answer is that while, for the most part, there aren't many zoonotic diseases that can transfer from cats to humans, there are some infections that can be transmitted from the cat to you through shared sources, notably protozoal infections. These are basically single-celled organisms that can cause severe diarrhea in both humans and cats and are normally contracted from the same sources (e.g. tainted water). However, depending on the cat and its habits they may be drinking water you are not, such as toilet water, and so it's possible that it taints your water via transfer.
Also, the great indoors is not always isolated from the great outdoors. Mice and other small rodents, along with insects, can also enter the premises and they may contaminate things that, in turn, get picked up by the cat. The Center for Disease Control has a list of possible infections that could arise.