The ASPCA gives a reasonable roundup of pilling techniques, but misses a few such as compounded medications and pill guns. I outline a few of these alternatives below.
Talk to your vet about compounding. While some medications are only available as pills or capsules, other medications can be provided as a liquid, paste, or suspension that is often mixed with a pet-friendly flavoring. These compounded medications can then be mixed with food or given with an oral syringe.
Pill Splitting or Grinding
Some pills shouldn't be split or ground, such as enteric-coated caplets. However, many pills can be split to make them easier to swallow without chewing. The trick is to get the enveloped pills small enough (including the envelope, such as a Pill Pocket) that the whole thing can be swallowed without chewing, since it's the chewing that is most likely to release the unpleasant taste or texture.
You want to make sure that the envelope is small enough to be easily swallowed, and that it fully covers any rough edges that might catch in the throat or cause irritation on the way down. I occasionally break pills up into 2-3 Pill Pockets to accomplish this with large pills or smaller dogs.
A pill gun is really just a variation on manual pilling, and can help when a pill must be taken whole. Assuming the pill is small enough to be safely swallowed without chewing, you use the pill gun (rather than your fingers) to place the pill at the back of the throat before stimulating the swallowing reflex.
I personally recommend the soft-tipped pill guns, rather than the hard plastic ones. In addition, avoid cheaply-made pill guns that have rough or sharp plastic edges, as you don't want to scratch or cut the tongue or throat.