With current technology the most convenient configuration for housing production rabbits is in small, wire bottom cages. Generally outdoors but in large production or scientific operations cages may be indoors. Discussions on the appropriateness of these operations are out of scope for this question/site.
Occasionally there is a crossover, a hybrid production/pet configuration, where rabbits are kept for their natural life (8 - 12 years) in an outdoor hutch. A person having been exposed to production rabbits living in outdoor hutches on a family farm, notices how cute and soft they are. With or without realizing the relatively short life span of scientific/production rabbits, they make a decision to rescue/adopt/purchase a rabbit and keep it in an outdoor hutch.
In my experience people making this choice, believe that they are making a positive choice that will ultimately be a kindness to the rabbit that is now in their care.
Is keeping a pet rabbit in an outdoor hutch for its natural life a kindness?