I am planning to build a dog ramp from the floor to the bed; I have small dachshunds who insist on being on the bed (older dogs, prior owners, and they keep us warm at night). Dachshunds are prone to back problems; they shouldn't be jumping and their stair usage should be minimized. We keep them in the bedroom when they are alone.
The bed top is 2.5 feet off the floor. I plan to build the ramp with wood and use a carpet lining on the actual ramp part of it; alternate ideas include using mild sandpaper or a towel folded every few inches for gripping.
I am building the ramp outward, not along the side of the bed. I don't want the ramp to intrude too far into the room, but I know that a 45-degree angle or higher is much too steep.