I had one, while also having two cats who aren't declawed. They were mostly scared of the giant ball, so I never had a problem with it. In fact, from some research, it seems the most common reaction to a ball like this is fear and avoidance.
However, I have read that for a number of people, the balance balls have been attacked by cats and deflated. They don't pop (I know this from accidentally puncturing one with a push pin), they just kind of deflate. You can theoretically repair it with a tire repair kit like you would use for bicycle tires, but like most home repair solutions, you are doing that at your own risk.
As far as a risk for your cat, the most I can see really happening is they cause it to deflate, and they get hit with the air hissing out, but I can't see that really being harmful, other than perhaps being a deterrent from ever interacting with the ball again.
Also, for what it is worth, when I did some brief searching, the brand of ball in your picture comes the most recommended by people on the internet who have cats and also have an exercise ball. There have been claims it is cat proof, but lacking any real evidence from the manufacturer, or hard science to back it up, I would assume any ball can be at risk of deflation from a cat attack.