I recently started night shift. To keep my sleep schedule, I usually stay up all night. Will me staying up affect my dogs sleep (or health in general) as well?
By default, dogs are diurnal, like humans, and have a monophasic sleep schedule (one sleep period per day). We sleep when it gets dark, and wake when it gets light. This likely has the most to do with the fact that humans and dogs are both sight hunters with relatively poor night vision (particularly when compared to nighttime hunters like felines and some birds). We're programmed from the getgo to be this way.
This isn't to say that we can't adapt to a different schedule. Your dog can (and probably will?) adapt to your sleep schedule, especially if you're the only human in the house. Dogs don't synthesize vitamin D from sunlight exposure, so you don't have to worry about that, either.
Keep an eye out for the big three: change in attitude/temperament; decreased appetite; inappropriate elimination. If your dog seems fine with the schedule change, then s/he is probably okay. Any concerns should be raised with a veterinarian.