Someone I know recently got a dog. This dog, however, has no tail. How do you find out why the dog has no tail - was it born like that, was it removed, etc.
What can I look for that will tell me the cause?
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Sometimes with dogs who have had it removed there is a tiny patch of hair missing where the scar tissue hasn't allowed tail hair/fur growth. You may have to pull back the fur a little bit to search for a scar or small hardened lump or skin where it has scarred up.
You can check this list.
It may help you identify it's breed, to tell if it's a breed that genetically has stubbed tails.
We can't help with breed identification on here since there are too many variations, mixes, assumptions, and identifying qualities etc..