Scratching serves several purposes.
- sharpenig oft claws
- simply workout
- sometimes boredom
- timeout during play
If you want to prevent destruction oft certain things you should keep the different purposes in mind.
As the causes for scratching won't vanish because it is natural behaviour in cats you can only arrange things to make your cat scratch elsewhere. So you basically have to provide better scratching opprotunities.
A cat marks its property by scratching. If you provide a scratching post it must be visible for a cat to consider it a good marking place. So test several positions and observe your cat.
Cats can prefer different materials. Mine love real wood, because it peels the claws better than textiles and the scratch marks are visible to other cats (even if there aren't any at your home). Wood makes dort but this is the price I pay for having my furniture saved. Your cat may prefer other materials. Testing can hell.
Workout by scratching is preferably done in an ergonomic position. I leaned some wooden branches against the wall in an 45 degree angle and the cats really like it. Inclined cardboards are available which are good for trying it out.
If your cat is bored do something about it. Play and provide toys for different opportunities.
If you are playing and your cat needs a timeout it will either lick itself or scratch. So consider where you play.