My 13 month old dog is petrified when outside his home environment. He walks fearfully along, & as soon as we turn to return home, he pulls ahead trying to get back as quickly as he can. He is full of confidence at home, with people & other dogs. He was adopted from the pound at 5 mths so missed out on socialisation at an important time. I socialised him a lot, and he did get a lot better, but seems to have become much worse over the last few months. His sister who has been adopted by someone else is the same, although not as bad. They are both much more fearful outside than normal dogs. I have tried taking it very slowly, creating positive experiences when he is out with treats & pats, adaptil collar & thundershirts. Any suggestions as to what else I can do would be appreciated.
A dog training class can help you to bond with your dog, better understand him, and also help him build up confidence. Once he knows a command, work with him outside in the yard, and then out on your walk, and then someplace new. Make it fun, be happy, but don't exhaust the dog, because they can become tired of training.
Doggie daycare can be quite affordable and help your dog with socialization. Because you won't be there, this is a good way to weed out if it's actually you or your attitude that's creating the fearfulness.
Try to connect with other dog trainers or dog clubs in your area so that you can get specific tips on how to help your dog
Structured walks. Keep walking, and try to create a route that includes less new scenery - perhaps a shorter distance with multiple laps, and try to make that a routine, going at the same time every day, stopping at the same places, going the same way. Be calm and unconcerned with your dog's behavior, and consistently hold an attitude that you know exactly where you're doing and where you're going and everything's just fine. This is basically called a "structured walk". I am not sure how you are walking now, but try these tips to refine what you have already.
I'm sure there are more things that you can do but these are my main thoughts
What kind of home is he in? House? apartment? Is there a yard? Fence? Is he OK in the yard?
If your space allows for it, just sitting outside the boundaries and extending the boundaries a little each day might also help. It will give him time to fully explore the new area while having the reassurance of you being there. This is a step back from the "structured walk" rlb.usa suggested.
Also, what is your demeanor like on these walks? I know that can be really hard to assess but you want to have a confident, relaxed demeanor all about yourself. If you are hurried, anxious, worried or even overly concerned for your dog he can pick up on that and misapply your negative energy to being outside his boundaries. In his mind you are alpha and if the alpha is worried about something then he needs to be worried about something even if he can't tell what that something is.
That's why I suggest just sitting outside his boundaries. You set aside time to sit, be relaxed and confident and he will move back and forth from you as he explores.