Fish, just like us, are subject to various forms of cancer and this sounds like an internal tumor manifesting externally on your fish. If it is a thyroid cancer, there is a possibility you can treat this with iodine in the water, otherwise it's inoperable. However, ideally you're able to consult with a vet to:
- Confirm it is a cancer.
- Confirm treatment possibilities, if any.
Now, I could be very wrong about this and I am not a vet, so this is not a diagnosis in any way. You can use Google image search for "fish tumor" and see some images of growths and compare that to your fish to give you some idea. However, as I noted, the best option is a vet that knows fish illnesses, but that can be a challenge it is true.